Profile picture for user Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
Poet, Scholar

Muhammad Iqbal, born on November 9, 1877, in the city of Sialkot in the Punjab province of Pakistan, is a great Islamic scholar and poet. He is renowned for his philosophical and political contributions. His poems are among the most significant examples of modern Urdu and Persian literature. He was the poet who first brought up and fought for the independence struggle of India’s Muslim population. After completing his Quranic education in a madrasa, he began to take an interest in Islamic literature. In 1905, he graduated from the philosophy and economics department of Cambridge University in London. He then went to Germany and obtained his doctorate in philosophy from the University of Munich. Upon returning to India in 1908, Iqbal was greatly influenced by Mevlana Jalal ad-Din Rumi. He played a significant role in mobilizing Muslims to resist British colonialism and in the establishment of Pakistan. He made the assessment that “One of the greatest Islamic scholars in history is Atatürk. The Republic revolution is a unique renewal movement of Islam led by him. Therefore, opposition to Atatürk is directly opposition to Islam,” which drew parallels between him and Mehmet Akif Ersoy. After a prolonged illness, the great poet passed away in his hometown of Lahore, Pakistan, on April 21, 1938.