“Belt” and “Road”: The combination of these concepts, with a deeper connotation than their individual meaning alone, is used to describe the 21st century’s greatest collaboration initiative. The Belt represents “economic corridors”, and the Road represents land routes, railways, and sea routes. Therefore, “Belt and Road” involve the integration of all these corridors and routes. It would not be wrong to claim that the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has become one of the two main policies competing with each other in interna-tional relations. BRI promotes peace, cooperation, and shared development against the imperialist policy that increases inter-state conflicts and provokes war.

In the present era, the USA, has been engaging in provocations and conspiracies in every strategic point of the sea and waterways, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean and the South China Sea. US attempts at undermining Turkey’s rights and interests in the eastern Mediterranean does not only concern Turkey, but they also target the interests of China, Russia, and Iran, directly or indirectly. Similarly, US at-tempts at undermining China’s sovereignty rights in the South China Sea are related not only to the interests and rights of China, but also to the interests of Turkey, Russia, and Iran. A similar situation goes for US attempts at confining Iran to the Persian Gulf through sanctions and military threats. Developing countries, suffering from problems created by Atlanticist globalization, must find common solutions to the common threat. In this connection, BRI has already made significant progress in building solid cooperation between Asia, Europe, and Africa. Significant collaborations over BRI have been established not only between China and neighboring countries in the region, but also among several countries across Africa and Europe. Among these, the most important one is the memorandum of understanding signed between China and Italy in March 2019. As a result, Italy has become the first major European country and G7 member that joined BRI.

As the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrate, Atlanticist globalization and the so-cioeconomic implications of neoliberalism pose a great threat to the present as well as the future of hu-manity. Atlanticist globalization –contrary to its own claims– constitutes the major obstacle to free trade, development, and peace. Another important point to be noted here is that this situation is not only valid for developing countries, but also for all other countries in the world.

US sanctions against Turkey, China, Russia, and Iran undermine the interests of Europe, as well. For this reason, the gap between the USA and Europe is becoming larger in terms of the policies to be pursued in world affairs. This situation creates favorable conditions for the developing world to resist US pressures. The expansion of BRI by engaging Europe will help to buffer the aggressive policies of the USA.

Moreover, Turkey’s resolution to protect its own rights and interests in the Eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus against US provocations directly contributes to the advancement of BRI. With its role as a strategic bridge between continents, Turkey’s active participation is crucial for the construction of the West Asian feet of BRI. This being said, the positive effect of Turkey’s participation is not limited to this role alone. Turkey’s participation would also disrupt plans for restraining BRI within the borders of Asia.

In this context, partnership with China and Russia is of strategic importance for Turkey, because China and Russia have both technology and experience in producing energy resources in the Black Sea and East-ern Mediterranean Sea.

In the final analysis, one could argue that the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” constitutes the most important component of BRI. The focus of maritime collaboration under BRI is on jointly building a safe and highly efficient transport corridor at ports along the Belt and Road line. Sovereignty on the seas is important for energy resources basins as well as for the use of resources within the sea and the sea bottom. Another factor as important as this one is the fact that up to 90% of the world’s trade is conducted through seaways. Controlling the seas and the waterways have gained much more importance today than in the previous ages.




Alexander Dugin (b. 1962) is a Russian philosopher and activist. As a founder of the Russian Geopolitical School and the Eurasian Movement, Dugin is considered as one of the most important exponents of modern Russian conservative thought in the line of slavophiles. He earned his PhD in Sociology, in Political sciences,  and also in Philosophy. During six years (2008 – 2014), he was the head of the Department of Sociology of International Relations in Sociological Faculty of Moscow State University. His publications include more than sixty books such as Foundations of Geopolitics, Fourth Political Theory, Theory of Multipolar World, Noomakhia (24 volumes), Ethnosociology. The influence of Dugin’s thought on modern day Russia (including political leaders) is recognized by not only his followers but also his philosophical and political opponents. His ideas are sometimes judged controversial or nonconformist but almost all agree that they are inspiring and original.

 E-mail: dugin@rossia3.ru

“We need to liberate ourselves, all the peoples, Turkish people, Russian people, Chinese people, European people, American peoples, from this international liberal swamp. We need to liberate ourselves from the totalitarian discourse constructed on the ‘self-evident’ dogma that only liberalism can be accepted as a universal ideology, that only Western values should be assimilated as something universal. With the growth of China and Putin’s insistence on defending and strengthening  Russian sovereignty, the Belt & Road Initiative was transformed into something new in the last two years. It now represents a strategy to secure Chinese and Russian independence, working together, in alliance. Now, we can speak about the Russian-Chinese alliance as a geopolitical alliance opposed to the Atlanticist world order. Nation-states cannot independently establish, secure and keep real sovereignty. We need to oppose this global pressure together. Above all, on the present stage, we need to establish a multipolar alliance between all the powers, all the states, all the countries and civilizations fighting for their independence. That is the logical continuation of decolonization. Decolonization is not finished; it has just started.”


The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019 has severely impacted the world economy. Many countries, especially developing countries, are encountering great difficulties. Faced with a period of major changes rarely seen in a century, China has re-asserted its adherence to peaceful development, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation in this environment. China is willing to work with partners to build the “Belt and Road” into a road of cooperation to meet challenges; a road to safeguard people’s health and safety; a road to economic revival and social recovery; and a road to growth that unlocks development potential (Xinhua net, 2020). Driven by China, the “Belt and Road Initiative” (hereinafter referred to as “BRI”) is moving forward steadily. This article focuses on the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road and analyzes the future of maritime cooperation under the BRI by reviewing its basic contents, construction highlights, and challenges.

Keywords: Belt and Road; blue economic passage; ice silk road; maritime silk road; port construction


The North Aegean Port has been on the agenda for more than 30 years, however; it has not come to life until today. With the spread of globalization, the increasing importance of transit loads and transit ports has brought the North Aegean Port, which is planned to serve the transit load in the region, into the agenda again. Aegean Region is one of the most important agricultural, tourism, mining and industrial regions in Turkey. The North Aegean (Çandarlı) Port has been planned to serve transhipment loads in order to meet increasing cargo volume in the long term. The North Aegean Port is one of the most favourable locations for cargo to be transferred to the Eastern and Middle Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Sea countries. Thanks to its geographical location, the port can reach more than thirty countries with very short transfer times. With this feature, it is a candidate to be one of the important transfer centers for the Belt and Road Project. The North Aegean Port is a project that can activate the great potential of the Aegean Region in foreign trade. With this feature, it is an important opportunity both for potential investors and those who want to expand their trade with the countries that are under the influence of the North Aegean Port. The North Aegean Port is more than just a transfer port for goods from China and other Far East countries. In a similar vein, the North Aegean Port has the potential and privilege to become a strategic port where goods can be both produced and shipped as a result of cooperative efforts made in the Aegean Region and other regions in line with the basic principles and targets of BRI.

Keywords: Aegean Sea; Belt and Road Initiative; China; Izmir; North Aegean Port


The Belt- Road Initiative (BRI) is a global project that connects China to other parts of the world, such as Europe, Asia and Africa, by land and sea. China’s goal in launching this project is to expand its trade links to the rest of the world and to find a common ground in the global equation. The BRI is one of the manifestations of China’s emerging power that will pose serious challenges to US hegemony. It is expected that the implementation of this project will not only increase China’s influence and power in the regional and international arena, but also pave the way for Asia’s economic development and increase its political and economic power around the globe. In this regard, the main questions of the article are: What are the salient characteristics of this project? What are the main challenges posed by the US? We suggest that the BRI will provide a golden opportunity for China to become a regional hegemon in Asia and then a hegemon in global level. Meanwhile, the US has resorted to tough measures to prevent China from becoming a hegemon by putting economic, political and financial obstacles in the way of BRI.

Keywords: Belt & Road Initiative; China; hegemony; international cooperation; US


It seems that the Belt & Road Initiative’s (BRI) main strategy is wisely designed and due to the world economic crisis it will play an important role in the world economy and global financial markets. This article will mainly focus on the economic effects of BRI and provide suggestions for financial cooperation and the integration of the counties involved. Besides the financial institutions and funds that directly support BRI, various institutions such as bilateral and multilateral regional banks, and China’s public and commercial banks, wealth and pension funds could also offer financial alternatives to BRI countries. Establishing a joint clearing institution or a Clearing Bank could significantly facilitate transactions in financial markets, particularly for BRI countries interested in developing financial products specific to their needs. Establishing a joint Wealth Fund of the BRI countries will boost investment projects and support national economies.