Sun D. & Zhang, J. (2022). China’s proposal for the Eastern Mediterranean conflict resolution: a “developmental peace”. BRIQ Belt & Road Initiative Quarterly, 4(1), 32-53.


The Eastern Mediterranean is one of the epicenters of Middle Eastern conflicts ranging from internal and bilateral to multilateral disputes. Outside powers adhere to diverse outlooks of peace initiatives. The western liberalists highlight “democratic peace”, emphasizing that “democracy deficit” causes conflict. China favors the “developmental peace” proposal and argues that conflicting parties can achieve peace through domestic and regional development. China dispatched peacekeeping forces to Lebanon for humanitarian rescues for the Republic in 2020, offered developmental aid and economic assistance to Lebanon, Syria and Palestine to improve their capacity with key infrastructure and livelihood projects as the centerpiece, and participated in post-war reconstruction in the three war-torn countries as well. The “developmental peace” argument is based on China’s four-decade long Reform and Opening-up experience, a potentially new scenario for the Eastern Mediterranean conflict resolution.