EDITORIAL

Few would deny that scientific and technological development responds to social needs. In our time, huge problems threatening the common future of humanity await resolution through scientific and techno­logical advances. 
It is possible to discern two different attitudes towards the solution of such problems in the present age. Firstly, the way the developed capitalist countries deal with these problems is certainly building up to a dead end. The ultimate solution for the metropolitan centers of the capitalist-imperialist system is to put the burden onto the shoulders of developing countries and to ensure the continuation of the neoliberal sys­tem for a certain period of time. However, the very source of the problems threatening the common future of humanity is the system itself. Genuine efforts to solve these problems cannot generate any profit of a substantial size. It follows that making large-scale public investments and conducting globally coordinated planning activities necessary to secure the common future of humanity are definitely out of consideration from the standpoint of the capitalist centers. Hence, the advanced capitalist countries in the developed world do not have any intention for substantially improving scientific and technological cooperation with the rest of the world. 
The second perspective is the perspective of the developing world. The priority of developing countries is sustainable economic development. During the 1 980s and 1 990s, most of the developing countries were rendered dependent on the programs of the World Bank and the IMF, and became paralyzed under the heavy load of foreign debts. 
This being said, the recent developments in the pandemic era have clearly demonstrated the superior­ity of a public-driven system over neoliberalism. Public-based policies have become the necessary condition for success in overcoming the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused world­wide economic turmoil, while exposing the interconnection between the economy and the environment. 
Under these circumstances, there seems no other solution for sustainable development than imple­menting a planned and public-driven mixed economy for the developing world. This also requires the guid­ance of science and technology, which can only be only be fully realized through closer scientific and tech­nological cooperation between developing countries, adding to other areas of cooperation, from economy to national security and foreign policy. 
In this respect. the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) assumes an ever-increasing relevance. BRl's guiding principle of "shared development" is a direct response to humanity's need for scientific and technological cooperation. One could argue that the cooperation model proposed by BRI foresees a holistic paradigm shift at the level of countries and societies. The basis of this change can be phrased as "collectivism versus individualism", or "sharing versus competitiveness". Herein lies the key that will secure the common future of humanity. In this framework, the International Association of Scientific Organizations (ANSO), which includes the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBiTAK), has started to develop a closer collaboration in the area of science and technology, responding to the specific needs of developing countries. This cooperation model guided by the principle of "shared development" offers the developing world the opportunity to realize their fullest potential of devel­opment. It also imposes a duty to take the lead in this process, especially for major countries such as Turkey and China, including their scientific institutions, scientists and intellectuals, in order to solve huge problems threatening humanity's common future. 

FİKRET AKFIRAT 
Editor-in-Chief 

Contents

Abstract

Addressing common challenges for a shared and sustainable future in the Belt and Road region requires significant contributions from science, technology, and innovation. Green technologies, smart energy systems, and sustainable urbanization are among the central points of emphasis in the development plans of China and Turkey. Based on the Beijing Declaration, the Alliance of International Science Organizations was launched to support the region with science-based solutions. This study compares a sample of countries in this alliance based on research capacity as well as selected indicators under the Sustainable Development Goals. An original approach is then developed to compare knowledge production patterns across linkages in the goals based on combined searches that are visualized with chord diagrams. The results indicate the goals that are receiving more focus within knowledge production, including sustainable cities. Expected increases in urbanization are compared leading to the year 2050, and collaborative research projects that are supported by the alliance are discussed in connection with their contributions for sustainable development alongside new scientific interactions. The article concludes with evidence-based observations regarding research capacity in the Belt and Road region and opportunities for further strengthening solutions based on science, technology, and innovation now and in the decades ahead.

Keywords:  Belt and Road, science, Sustainable Development Goals, technology, urbanization

Abstract

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an immense development program announced by the Chinese government in late 2013, which knitted around trade routes. Since scientific and technological cooperation is an integral part of BRI, the Alliance of International Science Organizations (ANSO) was established in 2018 as a non-governmental organization. In this work, conditions for effective cooperation in science and technology among countries are discussed first. Then, the research ecosystem's current situation is analyzed in terms of the number of scientific articles and trends while some results from the literature on international collaboration patterns are reviewed. Considering the current situation, scientific cooperation mechanisms are reviewed, and it is argued that ANSO can serve as a networking tool or seed for a future organization and that an inter-governmental body is necessary for the long run. After a short comparison with the Framework Programmes of the European Union, basic principles on which such a body should be established are discussed. A  “fair return” principle, availability of flexible contribution options and, simplified bureaucratic procedures are proposed. Mechanisms to avoid the creation of a dominant core that can cause a brain drain in the long term are also recommended following the balanced and inclusive spirit of BRI. Then, a set of criteria is proposed for the choice of cooperation areas, and the research areas suggested in the literature are discussed under the light of these criteria.

Keywords:  Belt and Road Initiative, innovation, inter-governmental organizations, science policy, scientific collaboration

 

 

Introduction

Belt and Road Initiative at a Glance    

Abstract

 

This paper discusses the potential role of the Black Sea in establishing a wider, more sustainable, environment-friendly, and interdisciplinary platform for innovative solutions with international cooperation among the Belt and Road Nations. Although this platform concept is based on two hydrogen research centers, one in China and the other in Turkey, with satellite centers along the entire Belt and Road, the benefits are discussed to fall out to a very wide spectrum of technological developments focusing on renewable energy, transportation, and welfare. The paper also argues the local benefit of cleaning the sea from harmful and dangerous concentrations of H2S gas by the close collaboration of the six countries around the Black Sea.

Keywords:  Black Sea, BRI, exergy, hydrogen economy, renewable energy

 

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed many problems and challenges for global public health governance, but the lack of leadership is one of the most serious. To fight against the pandemic, China proposes to the international community a brand-new concept of the “Community of Shared Future for Human Health” and contributes Chinese wisdom and solutions to global health governance. At the bilateral level, China will actively strive for cooperation among major countries in fighting the pandemic. At the regional level, it will use the “Silk Road of Health” as a starting point to enhance health cooperation with countries in the “Belt and Road” Initiative. At the global level, China will actively promote the construction and reform of global health governance mechanisms.

Keywords:  community of shared future for human health; COVID-19; global public health governance; Silk Road of Health

Abstract
The Times (London, England), Friday, Jul 08, 1921; page.10; Issue 42767.
The Times (London, England), Friday, Jul 08, 1921; page.10; Issue 42767.

 

PEACE SIGN IN NEAR EAST OVERTURE FROM ANGORA A MEETING WITH GENERAL HARRINGTON