In the period between his ascension to presidency in 2000 and the onset of the war on Syria in 2011, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad sought to shift economic policy towards infitah (opening).

A Neo-Mahanian Reading of Turkey and China’s Changing Maritime Geopolitics

Although the West brands Turkey’s re-landing in the open sea as ‘Neo-Ottomanism’, Turkey’s Blue Homeland Doctrine is a 21st-century ge

The Contents and Characteristics of Maritime Cooperation under the BRI


THE ANATOLIAN PENINSULA HAS HOSTED many different civilizations with its history of more than ten thousand years from the Paleolithic period to the present.

IN 2013, CHINA PUBLICLY UNVEILED ITS Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), which consist of a project to connect China to other parts of the world, such as Europe, Asia and Africa, by land and sea.